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« Preconditioning hormesis also occurs with heat exposure and the sauna by upregulating heat-shock proteins. Exogenous administration of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70) 18 hours before administration of endotoxins increases tolerance to an endotoxin challenge. »
«  Aneja, R., Odoms, K., Dunsmore, K., Shanley, T. P., & Wong, H. R. (2006). Extracellular Heat Shock Protein-70 Induces Endotoxin Tolerance in THP-1 Cells. The Journal of Immunology, 177(10), 7184–7192. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.177.10.7184 »
« phenomenon whereby a small amount of a toxin or stressor actually makes the body stronger against it in the future. »
« Studies in Finland show bathing in a sauna > 4 times a week reduces all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease risk by 40%. »
«  Laukkanen, T., Khan, H., Zaccardi, F., & Laukkanen, J. A. (2015). Association Between Sauna Bathing and Fatal Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Events. JAMA Internal Medicine, 175(4), 542. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.8187 »
« Fever has functioned as a response to infections in both cold- and warm-blooded animals for millions of years. Sick animals have a higher chance of survival when they experience a fever. »
«  Evans SS, Repasky EA, Fisher DT. Fever and the thermal regulation of immunity: the immune system feels the heat. Nat Rev Immunol 2015;15:335-49.
 Kluger MJ. Fever. Pediatrics 1980;66:720-4. »
« Raising body temperature strengthens the immune system by increasing white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, interferons and increasing the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells,, »
«  DOWNING, J. F., MARTINEZ-VALDEZ, H., ELIZONDO, R. S., WALKER, E. B., & TAYLOR, M. W. (1988). Hyperthermia in Humans Enhances Interferon-γ Synthesis and Alters the Peripheral Lymphocyte Population. Journal of Interferon Research, 8(2), 143–150. doi:10.1089/jir.1988.8.143
 TOMIYAMA, C., WATANABE, M., HONMA, T., INADA, A., HAYAKAWA, T., RYUFUKU, M., & ABO, T. (2015). The effect of repetitive mild hyperthermia on body temperature, the autonomic nervous system, and innate and adaptive
immunity . Biomedical Research, 36(2), 135–142. doi:10.2220/biomedres.36.135 »
« Elevated core body temperature or fever also induces heat shock proteins that inhibit viral replication,, and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines. »
«  Hirayama E, Atagi H, Hiraki A, et al. Heat shock protein 70 is related to thermal inhibition of nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein complex. J Virol 2004;78:1263-70.
 Conti C, De Marco A, Mastromarino P, et al. Antiviral effect of hyperthermic treatment in rhinovirus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43:822-9.
 Li G, Zhang J, Tong X, et al. Heat shock protein 70 inhibits the activity of Influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein and blocks the replication of virus in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One 2011;6:e16546.
 Ryan M, Levy MM. Clinical review: fever in intensive care unit patients. Crit Care 2003;7:221-5. »
« The average temperature for the human body is around 36-37°C (96.8-98.6°F). »
 Sund-Levander, M., Forsberg, C., & Wahren, L. K. (2002). Normal oral, rectal, tympanic and axillary body temperature in adult men and women: a systematic literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 16(2), 122–128. doi:10.1046/j.1471-6712.2002.00069.x»
« Taking a sauna has been associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk and improved heart health. »
«  Hannuksela, M. L. & Ellahham, S. Benefits and risks of sauna bathing. The American journal of medicine 110, 118-126 (2001). »
« A Finnish study found that people who used the sauna 2-3 times a week had a 22% lower risk of dying from sudden cardiac events compared to those who did so only once a week. »
 Laukkanen T, Khan H, Zaccardi F, Laukkanen JA. Association Between Sauna Bathing and Fatal Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Events. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(4):542–548. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.8187 »
« subjects who went in the sauna 4-7 times a week had a 63% less likelihood to experience cardiac death and were 50% less likely to die from cardiovascular ailments compared to those who used it once a week. Their all-cause mortality was also 40% lower. »« greatest benefits were found in those whose sauna sessions lasted 19 minutes or longer. »
«  The JAMA Network Journals. (2015, February 23). Sauna use associated with reduced risk of cardiac, all-cause mortality. « ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 18, 2020 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150223122602.htm »
« In obese humans, two weeks of far infrared sauna sessions significantly improves systolic and diastolic blood pressure, flow-mediated dilation, fasting glucose, body weight and body fat. »
 Biro, S., Masuda, A., Kihara, T., & Tei, C. (2003). Clinical Implications of Thermal Therapy in Lifestyle-Related Diseases. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 228(10), 1245–1249. doi:10.1177/153537020322801023 »
« Sauna bathing is inversely associated with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. « Sauna sessions can increase endorphins and beneficial brain neurotrophic factors that facilitate the maintenance of already existing synaptic connections while simultaneously promoting the creation of new ones. »
«  Tanjaniina Laukkanen, Setor Kunutsor, Jussi Kauhanen, Jari Antero Laukkanen, Sauna bathing is inversely associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease in middle-aged Finnish men, Age and Ageing, Volume 46, Issue 2, March 2017, Pages 245–249, https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afw212 »
« Exposure to high temperatures upregulates heat-shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs help the body adapt to the heat and stress. HSPs also have additional benefits.
«  Santoro (2000) 'Heat shock factors and the control of the stress response', Biochemical Pharmacology, Volume 59, Issue 1, 1 January 2000, Pages 55-63.
 Selsby, J. T. et al. Intermittent hyperthermia enhances skeletal muscle regrowth and attenuates oxidative damage following reloading. J Appl Physiol (1985) 102, 1702-1707, doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00722.2006 (2007).
 Naito, H. et al. Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy in hindlimb-unweighted rats. J Appl Physiol 88, 359-363 (2000).
 Guo, S., Wharton, W., Moseley, P., & Shi, H. (2007). Heat shock protein 70 regulates cellular redox status by modulating glutathione-related enzyme activities. Cell Stress & Chaperones, 12(3), 245. doi:10.1379/csc-265.1
«  Fan et al (2005) 'Novel Cardioprotective Role of a Small Heat-Shock Protein, Hsp20, Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury', Circulation. 2005;111:1792–1799,
 McLemore et al (2005) 'Role of the Small Heat Shock Proteins in Regulating Vascular Smooth Muscle Tone', VOLUME 201, ISSUE 1, P30-36, JULY 01, 2005, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2005.03.017
 Khazaeli, A. A., Tatar, M., Pletcher, S. D. & Curtsinger, J. W. Heat-induced longevity extension in Drosophila. I. Heat treatment, mortality, and thermotolerance. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences 52, B48-52 (1997).
 Lithgow, G. J., White, T. M., Melov, S. & Johnson, T. E. Thermotolerance and extended life-span conferred by single-gene mutations and induced by thermal stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92, 7540-7544 (1995)
 Tatar, M., Khazaeli, A. A. & Curtsinger, J. W. Chaperoning extended life. Nature 390, 30, doi:10.1038/36237 (1997) »
« Sauna sessions strengthen the immune system by increasing white blood cell count. Because of its stimulating effect on the lymphatic system, saunas may help improve toxicant-induced health problems »
«  Pilch, W., Pokora, I., Szyguła, Z., Pałka, T., Pilch, P., Cisoń, T., … Wiecha, S. (2013). Effect of a Single Finnish Sauna Session on White Blood Cell Profile and Cortisol Levels in Athletes and Non-Athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics, 39(1), 127–135. doi:10.2478/hukin-2013-0075
 Crinnion W. J. (2011). Sauna as a valuable clinical tool for cardiovascular, autoimmune, toxicant- induced and other chronic health problems. Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic, 16(3), 215–225. »
« Sauna therapy has been proposed as a strategy against influenza infection since at least 1957. »
«  Hartmann A. [Asiatic flu in 1957; sauna baths as prophylactic measure]. Hippokrates 1958;29:153-4. »
« One study found that sauna bathing among 2,000 men reduced respiratory diseases by 27% and 41%, respectively, in subjects who had 2-3 or more than 4 sauna sessions a week compared to those who did so less than once a week. The same authors recognized a 33% and 47% reduction in risk of pneumonia, respectively. »
« Regular visits to the sauna significantly reduce the frequency and severity of influenza infections in children and adults.” »
«  Kunutsor SK, Laukkanen T, Laukkanen JA. Sauna bathing reduces the risk of respiratory diseases: a long-term prospective cohort study. Eur J Epidemiol 2017;32:1107-11.
 Kunutsor SK, Laukkanen T, Laukkanen JA. Frequent sauna bathing may reduce the risk of pneumonia in middle-aged Caucasian men: The KIHD prospective cohort study. Respir Med 2017;132:161-3.
 Brenke R. [Not Available]. Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006) 2015;22:320-5. »
« Episodes of the common cold have also been noted to be cut in half in patients taking sauna sessions several times a week for several months compared to those who were not. »
«  Ernst E, Pecho E, Wirz P, et al. Regular sauna bathing and the incidence of common colds. Ann Med 1990;22:225-7. »
« Experiments in human cell cultures have shown that hyperthermia enhances the antiviral effects of interferon by 3-10 fold. Hyperthermia can even improve the antiviral and antiproliferative functions of all three human interferons. »
«  Chang CC, Wu JM. Modulation of antiviral activity of interferon and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene expression by mild hyperthermia (39.5 degrees C) in cultured human cells. J Biol Chem 1991;266:4605-12.
 Payne J, Nair MP, Ambrus JL, et al. Mild hyperthermia modulates biological activities of interferons. Int J Hyperthermia 2000;16:492-507. »
« The minimal effective dose for facilitating thermal hormesis and stimulating the immune system seems to be at a core body temperature of around 100.4°F (38°C), « basically, a temperature indicative of a fever. Based on Finnish studies, the optimal frequency for taking a sauna is between 15-30-minute sessions at 70°C to 100°C (156-212°F) 2-4 times per week. Doing more isn’t necessarily going to be better and you can even start to see diminishing returns in the health benefits at higher frequencies or longer durations.
« Heat exposure is well known for increasing nitric oxide. Because sauna therapy promotes the expression of endothelial NOS,, endogenous antioxidant activity and lowers oxidative stress, this would theoretically help boost type-1 interferon production (which is inhibited by oxidative stress) and reduce loss of eNOS activity. »
«  Gryka D, Pilch WB, Czerwinska-Ledwig OM, et al. The influence of Finnish sauna treatments on the concentrations of nitric oxide, 3-nitrotyrosine and selected markers of oxidative status in training and non-training men. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2020;33:173-85.
 Huang PH, Chen JW, Lin CP, et al. Far infra-red therapy promotes ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice and restores high glucose-suppressed endothelial progenitor cell functions. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2012;11:99.
 Ikeda Y, Biro S, Kamogawa Y, et al. Repeated sauna therapy increases arterial endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Circ J 2005;69:722-9.
 Lin CC, Liu XM, Peyton K, et al. Far infrared therapy inhibits vascular endothelial inflammation via the induction of heme oxygenase-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008;28:739-45.
 Brunt VE, Eymann TM, Francisco MA, et al. Passive heat therapy improves cutaneous microvascular function in sedentary humans via improved nitric oxide-dependent dilation. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md : 1985) 2016;121:716-23.
« One single sauna session for 30 minutes at 163.4°F in patients with cardiovascular risk factors reduced arterial stiffness and blood pressure. Sauna therapy also improves heart rate variability, and arterial compliance. »
«  Laukkanen T, Kunutsor SK, Zaccardi F, et al. Acute effects of sauna bathing on cardiovascular function. J Hum Hypertens 2018;32:129-38.
 Gayda M, Bosquet L, Paillard F, et al. Effects of sauna alone versus postexercise sauna baths on short-term heart rate variability in patients with untreated hypertension. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2012;32:147-54.
 Laukkanen T, Lipponen J, Kunutsor SK, et al. Recovery from sauna bathing favorably modulates cardiac autonomic nervous system. Complement Ther Med 2019;45:190-7.
 Lee E, Laukkanen T, Kunutsor SK, et al. Sauna exposure leads to improved arterial compliance: Findings from a non-randomised experimental study. European journal of preventive cardiology 2018;25:130-8.
« human fat tissue contains many man-made synthetic substances, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs). »
«  Lee YM, Kim KS, Jacobs DR, Jr., et al. Persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue should be considered in obesity research. Obes Rev 2017;18:129-39. »
« The Hubbard protocol uses sauna combined with exercise, niacin and supplemental oils to eliminate POPs and improve clinical symptoms in subjects exposed to them. In general, studies find a 25-30% decrease in POP levels in fat tissue and blood by heat-induced sweating. »
«  Genuis SJ, Lane K, Birkholz D. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study. BioMed research international 2016;2016:1624643. »
« Even first responders at 911 and Gulf War veterans exposed to oil fires have seen improvements in respiratory symptoms with this sauna protocol. »
«  Kerr K, Morse G, Graves D, et al. A Detoxification Intervention for Gulf War Illness: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16.»
« sweat mobilization does play a big role in removing toxins from the body and mediating the benefits of the Hubbard protocol. Sweating alone has actually been used to improve uremia, or the accumulation of toxins in the blood of patients with kidney disease. Sauna therapy also helps to eliminate heavy metals like arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury as well as POPs. A 2010 study found that: “Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of many toxic elements from the human body.” »
«  Ye, T., Tu, W., & Xu, G. (2013). Hot bath for the treatment of chronic renal failure. Renal Failure, 36(1), 126–130. doi:10.3109/0886022x.2013.832318
 Sears, M. E., Kerr, K. J., & Bray, R. I. (2012). Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2012, 1–10. doi:10.1155/2012/184745
 Genuis SJ, Birkholz D, Rodushkin I, et al. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) study: monitoring and elimination of bioaccumulated toxic elements. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2011;61:344-57.
 Genuis SJ, Beesoon S, Lobo RA, et al. Human elimination of phthalate compounds: blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) study. TheScientificWorldJournal 2012;2012:615068. »
Lennox RD, Cecchini-Sternquist M. Safety and tolerability of sauna detoxification for the protracted withdrawal symptoms of substance abuse. J Int Med Res. 2018 Nov;46(11):4480-4499. doi: 10.1177/0300060518779314. PMID: 30209965; PMCID: PMC6259397. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0300060518779314
Hubbard LR. Clear body clear mind. 2013 ed Los Angeles: Bridge Publications, 2013, p.294.
« Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of many toxic elements from the human body.” »
« that infrared/steam sauna helps to excrete phthalates, flame retardants, BPA, pesticides and PCBs. Sauna may even help with exposure to mold and mycotoxins. »
«  Genuis SK, Birkholz D, Genuis SJ. Human Excretion of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study. BioMed research international 2017;2017:3676089. »
«  Genuis SJ, Beesoon S, Birkholz D, et al. Human excretion of bisphenol A: blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) study. J Environ Public Health 2012;2012:185731. »
«  Genuis SJ, Beesoon S, Birkholz D. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study. ISRN toxicology 2013;2013:483832.
 Rea WJ. A Large Case-series of Successful Treatment of Patients Exposed to Mold and Mycotoxin. Clin Ther 2018;40:889-93. »
« Sauna Timeline References: Podstawski et al (2019) and Pilch et al (2013),
«  Podstawski, R., Borysławski, K., Laukkanen, J. A., Clark, C., & Choszcz, D. (2019). The effect of prolonged thermal stress on the physiological parameters of young, sedentary men and the correlations with somatic features and body composition parameters. Homo : internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen, 70(2), 119–128. https://doi.org/10.1127/homo/2019/1016
 Pilch, W., Pokora, I., Szyguła, Z., Pałka, T., Pilch, P., Cisoń, T., Malik, L., & Wiecha, S. (2013). Effect of a single finnish sauna session on white blood cell profile and cortisol levels in athletes and non-athletes. Journal of human kinetics, 39, 127–135. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2013-0075 »
«They have a longer wavelength than visible light. There are three types of infrared (IR) waves: near-infrared, mid-infrared, and far-infrared, the last of which can potentially improve endothelial function. »
«  Hsu YH, Chen YC, Chen TH, et al. Far-infrared therapy induces the nuclear translocation of PLZF which inhibits VEGF-induced proliferation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PLoS One 2012;7:e30674. »
« IR saunas heat deeper into the tissues, where they stimulate collagen synthesis and activate mitochondrial energy production. Infrared wavelengths also increase eNOS beyond any effect from increased core body temperature, suggesting that IR saunas work not only because of the rise in heat but by their infrared waves. »
« On the other hand, regular saunas can be heated much higher, up to 200-250°F, whereas infrared maxes out at around 160-170°F. »
« In one randomized single-blind controlled trial, patients with an acute cold infection showed significantly less severe symptoms on day 2 if they inhaled hot dry sauna air through their mouth compared to dry air from the outside. »
«  Pach D, Knochel B, Ludtke R, et al. Visiting a sauna: does inhaling hot dry air reduce common cold symptoms? A randomised controlled trial. Med J Aust 2010;193:730-4.»
« A randomized double-blind trial compared inhaling fully humidified warm air at 86°F for 20 minutes from an apparatus, to inhaling hot air at 109.4°F, and discovered that the latter treatment cut respiratory symptoms in half during the following days. Those treated for 30 minutes just when they started to get a cold, saw an additional 18% reduction in their cold symptoms. »
«  Tyrrell D, Barrow I, Arthur J. Local hyperthermia benefits natural and experimental common colds. BMJ 1989;298:1280-3. »