- Major nutrients such as magnesium, zinc, etc. are lacking in our food due to the agriculture industry.
Zinc, in particular, has been deficient for at least 2 generations. The ability to fix it is reduced (epigenetic).
This is why our we cannot source it only through our diet...
The nutrient concentrations have been on the declined in our food since the 1950s.
- Less protein (6%), calcium, phosphorus, iron, riboflavin (38%) and vitamin C. (Davis, 2004 USA)
- Less Calcium, Magnesium, Copper and sodium in Vegetables & Less Magnesium, Iron, Copper and Potassium in fruits. (Mayer 1997 UK)
- Dito in Canada (Marles 2017)
- Too much sugar and carbohydrates
Decline in nutrient concentrations in food over the past 50 years
Protein, Ca, P, Fe, riboflavin and ascorbic acid from 6% for protein to 38% for riboflavin
- Zinc (Zn)
Zinc is a necessary trace element for many enzymatic reactions involved with the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cells. As a cofactor of a superoxide dismutase (ZnSOD), it helps protect against oxidative stress. Zinc is also involved in the transcription of DNA and plays an important role in the structure of certain proteins and cell membranes. (1) In childhood, zinc is essential for growth and development. (2) Zinc supplements are also used to support the immune system, especially to reduce symptoms and duration of the common cold, to accelerate wound healing and to treat acne. In addition, zinc is implicated in taste. In some cases of dysgeusia, zinc supplements are used. (3)
- Oysters (16-33 mg / 100 g) and other seafood, offal (liver), poultry, whole grains and nuts (4) Pumpkin and sesame seeds (2-3 mg / 60 ml).
- On the market, zinc is found in the form of salts (acetate, citrate, picolinate, gluconate, ascorbate, orotate, sulphate and chloride) or in chelated form with an amino acid. No studies have actually compared their bioavailability, but zinc gluconate is better absorbed than oxide, (5) and bisglycinate is better absorbed (43%) than gluconate.
Animal studies have shown that zinc is necessary for bone growth. Several mechanisms of action have been identified in vivo and in vitro: (7)
- Stimulation of the multiplication of osteoblasts and their differentiation into osteocytes;
- Stimulation of production of type I collagen, osteocalcin and IGF-1;
- Increased activity of alkaline phosphatase;
- Inhibition of the RANKL factor involved in the differentiation of osteoclasts.
In humans, the clinical data seem to confirm the importance of a dietary intake of zinc is necessary for bone health:
- The monitoring a group of 396 men aged 45 to 92 years for 4 years highlighted the link between osteoporosis and a low zinc diet. Bone density in the hip and spine was also lower in men with the lowest plasma zinc level (8)
- 224 healthy postmenopausal women took 600 mg of calcium daily for 2 years. 112 of them took in addition 12 mg of zinc and 2 mg of copper. The results showed a preventive effect of zinc on bone loss, only in those who had a zinc dietary intake of less than 8 mg per day. In the others, it seems to have had the opposite effect. On the other hand, when the results were factored in with the intake of dietary magnesium, the latter explains the difference in results. Indeed, with intakes of Mg lower than 237 mg / d, bone mass decreased over 2 years. With higher intakes (Mg ≥237 mg / d), bone mass was maintained. (9) Mg RNA = 320 mg / d in women.
- 61 people aged 66 to 105 with osteoporosis received a supplement of 20 g of protein (whey + essential amino acids) for 4 weeks. In the group also receiving 30 mg zinc per day, plasma IGF-1 levels increased faster than in the control group and the CrossLaps® indicator of bone resorption decreased significantly. (10) There were 14 withdrawals, 12 of which were due to nausea.
- 60 patients (20-50 years) with traumatic fractures received either 50 mg zinc (sulphate) or placebo. In the verum group, calus formation was accelerated and the level of alkaline phosphatase and serum zinc increased (11)
- 20 men took 50 mg zinc (gluconate) for 12 weeks. The markers of bone formation (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were increased, but the resorption markers (urinary calcium, C-telopeptide) were not affected. (12)
Possible: acne, colds, osteoporosis.
Zinc is not stored in the body and must be supplied regularly in our diet.
Recommended nutritional intake:
- From 0 to 6 months: 2 mg
- 7 to 12 months: 3 mg
- From 1 to 3 years: 3 mg
- 4 to 8 years: 5 mg
- 9 to 13 years: 8 mg
- From 14 to 18 years: 11 mg (boys), 9 mg (girls)
- From 19 years: 11 mg (men), 8 mg (women)
Maximum intake according to Health Canada: 50 mg / d
Suggested doses: 15 to 30 mg zinc in combination with other minerals, particularly copper (ratio 1/11 to 1/15 to prevent over dosage of copper: 1 to 2 mg Cu for 15 to 30 mg Zn).
- Minor digestive disorders (stomach pain, diarrhea and nausea)
- Locally (pellet) or high-dose: Altered taste
- High doses (greater than 100 mg per day) or long-term use may lead to copper deficiency, leading to serious disorders such as sideroblastic anemia and myeloneuropathy (13, 14). It’s advised to add copper supplements (1 to 3 mg).
Zinc may decrease the absorption of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics when consumed at the same time.
Some drugs or treatments may stimulate or decrease zinc excretion: anticonvulsants, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, thiazide-type diuretics, chelating agents (penicillamine, DTPA), antacids and calcium.
Pregnancy and breast feeding:
Zinc acts as a co-factor. It is therefore interesting in a multi-mineral approach.
References text 1:
- Davis DR, Epp MD, Riordan HD. Changes in USDA food composition data for 43 garden crops, 1950 to 1999. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec 23 (6): 669-82. PubMed PMID: 15637215. Https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637215
Ca, Mg, Cu and Na in vegetables and Mg, Fe, Cu and K in fruit.
Historical changes in the mineral content of fruits and vegetables
British Food Journal 1997
Marles RJ. Mineral nutrient composition of vegetables, fruit and grains: The context of reports of apparent historical declines. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis Volume 56, March 2017, Pages 93-103 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889157516302113
Declining Fruit and Vegetable Nutrient Composition: What Is the Evidence?
Donald R. Davis
HortScience February 2009 vol. 44 no. 1 15-19
References text 2:
- Zinc. Micronutrient Information Center. Linus Pauling Institute - Micronutrient Research for Optimum Health. lpi.oregonstate.edu
- Ruz M. Zinc supplementation and growth. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Nov; 9 (6): 757-62. Review. PMID: 17053431.
- Heyneman CA. Zinc deficiency and taste disorders. Ann Pharmacother. 1996 Feb; 30 (2): 186-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 8835055.
The pharmacokinetics of zinc from zinc gluconate were compared with that of zinc oxide in healthy men. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Dec 43 (12): 562-5. PMID: 16372518.
The pharmacokinetics of zinc from a zinc gluconate were compared with those of zinc oxide in healthy men. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Dec 43 (12): 562-5. PMID: 16372518.
Gandia P, Bour D, Maurette JM, Donazzolo Y, Duchène P, Béjot M, Houin G. Abioavailability study comparing two oral formulations containing zinc (Zn bis-glycinate vs. Zn gluconate) . Int J Vitam NutrRes. 2007 Jul. 77 (4): 243-8. PubMed PMID: 18271278.
- Yamaguchi M. Role of nutritional zinc in the prevention of osteoporosis. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010 May; 338 (1-2): 241-54. Review. PMID: 20035439.
Hyun TH, Barrett-Connor E, Milne DB. Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep; 80 (3): 715-21. PMID: 15321813.
- Nielsen FH, Lukaski HC, Johnson LK, Roughead ZK. Reported zinc, but not copper, intakes influence whole-body bone density, mineral content and T score responses to zinc and copper supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 2011 Dec 106 (12): 1872-9. doi: 10.1017 / S0007114511002352. PubMed PMID: 21733304.
- Rodondi A, Ammann P, Ghilardi-Beuret S, Rizzoli R. Zinc increases the effects of essential amino acids-whey protein supplements in frail elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2009 Jun; 13 (6): 491-7. PubMed PMID: 19536417.
Sadighi A, Roshan MM, Moradi A, Ostadrahimi A. The effects of zinc supplementation on serum zinc, alkaline phosphatase activity and fracture healing of bones. Saudi Med J. 2008 Sep 29 (9): 1276-9. Erratum in: Saudi Med J. 2008 Dec 29 (12): 1836. PubMed PMID: 18813411.
- Peretz A, Papadopoulos T, Willems D, Hotimsky A, Michiels N, Siderova V, Bergmann P, Neve J. Zinc supplementation increases bone alkaline phosphatase in healthy men. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2001; 15 (2-3): 175-8. PubMed PMID: 11787985.
Willis MS, Monaghan SA, Miller ML, McKenna RW, Perkins WD, Levinson BS, Bhushan V, Kroft SH. Zinc-induced copper deficiency: a report of three cases initially recognized on bone marrow examination. Am J Clin Pathol. 2005 Jan; 123 (1): 125-31. PMID: 15762288.
- Hedera P, Peltier A, Fink JK, Wilcock S, London Z, Brewer GJ. Myelopolyneuropathy and pancytopenia due to copper deficiency and high zinc levels of unknown origin II. The tooth cream is a source of excessive zinc. Neurotoxicology. 2009 Nov; 30 (6): 996-9. Epub 2009 Sep 2. PMID: 19732792.